Differenze di genere nella formazione
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This essay is focused on gender differentiation processes in education, with specific regards to the issue of inequality in educational attainment. After a brief review of the main sociological approaches (functionalism and conflictualism), the article moves to describe recent findings on the issue emerging from field studies, both in developed and developing countries. Then it considers how socialization processes are affected by gender stereotypes, mainly through the adult-child interaction and pair group dynamics. Some basic differences between females and males in scholarship are underlined, such as, the higher attainment scores achieved by females, the higher levels of attention reserved from teachers to male students; the persistence of sexism expressions in pair relations at school. A rising issue is put under focus by interactionist approach: everyday practices in teaching and learning usually do not take into account the student’s and the teacher’s gender. In addition to that, there is a new challenge emerging from globalization and pluralization processes: the combination between gender and ethnical differences will create new agents and new issues in educational resources distribution. A short look to recent inquires shows as foreign students are now facing both inequality (like gender-race gap) and differentiation dynamics (like diversity in motivation for studying).
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