This article focuses on the role that sociology has played in the formation of representation theory, particularly on the latest theoretical developments. Here the points of contact between the latter and the theories on social representation of Serge Moscovici are analysed. This investigation will highlight that in addition to the theories that refer directly to the psychosocial French tradition, others emerge showing an originality of approach, which characterises this branch of sociology.
Key words: social and collective representations, representations and social sciences, habitus, common sense.
Una politica dopo i distretti: metamorfosi di un modello di capitalismo
The article focuses on the Italian manufacturing sector features after the «ventennio infelice» (twenty years of economic and industrial long term slowdown) 1990-2010. In particular the research question concerns whether it is still possible to discuss this issue by analysing the industrial districts. They were rediscovered during the 1970s by Giacomo Becattini (1979). From that moment on great attention has been paid to this economic model and to its Italian empirical evidences (e.g. Piore - Sabel 1984; Porter 1990). Nowadays the industrial district is considered as an obsolete model by most observers, mainly due to the industrial decline and the pressure of globalization. By analysing several Italian districts cases of success – even if they need specific policies to strengthen their community services and infrastructures – the author aims at reversing this perspective: territory is here not merely understood as a stock of resources but as a living system, therefore it still plays a role in activating and sustaining economic and social development processes.
Key words: industrial districts, manufacturing, territory, Italy, local development.
NOTE E COMMENTI
La riabilitazione extramuraria e il donum/munus del tempo restituito
Today many of prison structures are actually real landfills, warehouses for storage of all social subjects socially undesirable. The article examines the benefit of rehabilitation, provided by Law 354/75 and – more specifically – by article 21 of L. 354/75 (work outside) aiming to the social reintegration of the inmates and to the rebuilding of reciprocal trust bonds. The rehabilitation – in the perspective of author – becomes a donum/munus between the State and all those subjects «socially undesirable». In this perspective, the donum (gift) is never free and doesn’t rule out, as written by Raymond Boudon, «the right to demand something in return». On the contrary, the donum is a «munus» temporally deferred, a pledge towards the Institutions for the inmates admitted to «probation». The «work outside» becomes the gift and the opportunity that is given in return of the identity realization and social reconstruction while the time of life – «time given back» – spent in the work experience outside the prison becomes a way to commit for the society. The qualitative research has the purpose to demonstrate the positive effects of Article 21. The survey consists of semi-structured interviews with adults between 18 and 40 years, in criminal enforcement in San Giuliano’ Prison of Trapani, who have testified extensively the positivity of operational model focusing on the rehabilitation and on the social inclusion projects.
Key words: rehabilitation, probation, donum-munus, work outside, «time given back».
"Regioni che apprendono": luoghi per l’apprendimento permanente e lo scambio di conoscenza
In recent years many territories have understood that an economy and a more prosperous future depend on the growth of human and social capital available to them internally. Many local authorities are thinking and creating plans and strategies to promote personal growth, social cohesion and the sustainable creation of wealth through the development of the human potential of all citizens. One of the fields of action that moves in this direction is represented by the so-called «learning regions»: network projects involving national and international territories, aimed to set up partnerships, to investigate and experiment effective ways of doing «learning» the engine of local development. In this perspective the reference to the construction of social capital network becomes extremely critical. This aspect emphasizes the importance of heritage of human and relational resources whose territories are able to acquire and how knowledge is turning more and more from pedagogical ideal to development needs, within a socio-economic space more and more «learning».
The proposal focuses on some results of a research project which has analyzed responsible attitudes of enterprises, retail organizations and consumers in some Sicilian provinces. Social responsibility debate is a subject of study particularly relevant today, considering all stakeholders involved in the market dynamics. On the side of the enterprises, in fact, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), object of a European debate in the last years, has had great resonance; on the side of the consumers it is linked to the new «responsible», «ethic» and «political» consumption trends. Starting from these premises, the research, aiming at providing a first framework of the issue, concerns all the symbolic subjects of the market – production, distribution and consumption – believing that, even if consumption is an important factor capable of putting economic pressure on the market, it is necessary not to neglect producers’ action, which is fundamental compared to responsible consumption, whose declinations are based on the valorization of the relationship between producers and consumers.
Key words: ethical trade, responsible consumption, corporate social responsibility, lifestyles,sustainability.