di Maddalena Colombo
This article analyses the current relaity of schooling, highlighting some of the major changing
factors: factors of turbolence (i.e. the reform processes) and negative attitudes towards the change,
expressed by teachers, headmasters, parents and extra-school agencies); processes of de-structuration
of the institutional stability; processes of fragmentation and lost of motivation within the social actors
within the school establishments. It follows the interpretation of this frame on the base of the
ambivalence “institution versus organisation”, that can explain part of this increasing complexity.
Finally, to cope with the complexity it is proposed a model of solution as process of “institutionalization
bottom-up”, based on th sense making capability of the social actors in school.
di Stefano Martelli
This article offers some data and reflexions collected by two sociological researches led in an
area of North Italy: Bologna and its land (2001-2002). In the first research the object was the socioreligious
practices of piety to the tombs in four cemeteries of the Diocese (one cemetery in the town
of Bologna, two in the country and one in the mountaine). In a second time a survey about the ways
to celebrate funerals was led in all the parishes of the town, which is the most secularized area in the
Diocese. The collected findings show the persistence in the bolognese population of the social practices
to commemorate the deads, and the large diffusion of christian simbols; yet one can note a lot of
difficulties in the transmission to children of these practices, so that visit to the cemetery of young
people are infrequent. Furthermore one can note a differentiation in the funerals: less people asks the
mass celebrated in its parish and more people prefers the simple blessing, given to the dead in the
chapel of the hospital or of the cemetery. These difficulties in the socialization arise some questions
on the future of the cult of deads in this secularized area, while one can note a lot of socio-cultural
changes, as the «naturalization of the death», or its rimotion from the “post”-modern culture, and the
presence of religious minorities, as muslims; and all these tendences are new challenges to the
di Raimondo Strassoldo
The revival of ethnic/regional/language minorities within European national states, one of the
components of the oppositional “identity movements” of the sixties and seventies, has attracted wide
attention from several disciplinary quarters: political science ( e.g. A. Smith,) sociology (A. Touraine),
sociology of language (J. Fishman) and others. More recently, it has been linked to the theory of globalization (“glocalism”). In Italy, for a number of reasons, regional/ethnic issues have long been
neglected by “mainstream” sociology, and considered only as a peculiarity of some remote Alpine
border areas. However, in 1999, a national bill (n. 482) was passed in the national parliament, recognizing
the existence throughout Italy of 12 “historical language minorities” (Albanians, Catalans,
Croats, Greeks, Occitans, Franco-Provençals, and others) beside the ones already constitutionally
recognized (French, Germans, Slovenes) and granting them some rights, guarantees, and token financial
support. By far the largest groups are the Sardinians ( pop. 1.650. and the Friulians (pop.
900.000). After a general-theoretical introduction, the paper briefly sketches the history of
ethnic/regional/linguistic/ minority movements in Italy, the history and structure of Law 482/99, and
finally focuses on the case of Friuli, where since the early seventies a tradition of sociological studies
on these matters have been established, and many empirical surveys have been carried out, making
this by far the best researched language minority in Italy. In the conclusion, the results of such
research are put in the context of the “reversing language shift” theory advanced by Joshua Fishman,
and questions are raised on the possibility to save Friulian, as many hundreds or perhaps thousands
other threatened minor languages, by legal decrees, in the face of the powerful socio-economic and
cultural forces (nationalisation, globalization “homologation”) pushing them toward extinction.
Note e commenti
di Alessandro Bosi
This article is part of a future research project on the figures of the autochthonous, cosmopolite
and allochthonous in multicultural societies. In defining three fields (history, society, instruction) in
which I will analyze the subjects of this work, I intend to produce two digressions for studying the
distinction between concepts of diversity/difference and multicultural/multiethnic. This will allow me
to analyze the autochthonous, the cosmopolite and the allochthonous in their relations with the language,
the food and the place. I consider the probability that these subjects are residual figures of
sociality without an effective correspondence to the facts. In multicultural societies the identities
could be redesigned respect to those primordial and to the expectative created by our way of thinking.
However, this outcome would be important to induce us to consider in a critical way our attitude
toward the citizenship concept in multicultural societies.
di Monica Martinelli
The concept of community has known a wide spread use in sociology. However, although, it
might seem simple to define community as one of the best known associative forms of human cohabitation,
such a definition presents also some empirical problems. In the first place, because community
has been often defined as something that dissolves itself with the coming of the modern world.
Secondly, because recently such a concept has been used in sociological analysis with problematic
meanings. This article attempts to explore such a concept in empirical terms and to offer a contribution
to its redefinition referring to a field investigation which involved some communities of families.
Starting from this, a definition of community is hypothesized in the form of a social relationship
strongly anchored to the moment of intersubjectivity and capable of generating mutations in contratendency
to the contemporary culture.
di Lorenzo Nasi
The necessity of reflecting on the aims and methodologies in use in the varied world of
Developmental Cooperation has stressed the importance of the evaluation process. This essay contains
a presentation of the major forms, typologies and techniques of evaluation used by the major
organizations concerned with Developmental Cooperation. It also relates about the evaluation of a
specific project realized by an Italian Non Governamental Organization in Ecuador.
di Ambrogia Cereda
The article analyses the meaning of tattooing as a form of narration. Introducing the body as a
text that can convey different forms of thought (derived both from philosophy and from sociology),
the author maintains that the body modification is today as an open and living work whose interpretation
has an influence on the individual identity and can be changed by means of the interaction
with others. A thumbnail sketch of the history of the practice among traditional communities up to
contemporary society is drawn to provide a series of fundamental usages for the inscription of the
body. The concern here is to show tattooing as an expression of the whole individual (no longer
divided into mind vs. body) and of his own perceived identity, underlying the relation of the chosen
symbols (and of the symbolic ritual) with society, which remains the main source offering forms of
representation and the main stage for the construction of identity. So that the whole final text can be
read as the result of a process where the authorship is shattered among the society itself.